New Educational Society. The Illichs Utophy

Kirsi-Marja Saurén, Kaarina Määttä

Resumen

El objetivo de este artículo es reflexionar sobre el poder del sistema educativo basado en las ideas de Ivan Illich (1926-2002). Este artículo está basado en una investigación doctoral en la que se ha analizado y reconstruido de forma sistemática el trabajo de Illich sobre la pobreza modernizada, a partir de sus libros más importantes publicados en los años 70. Este artículo, no obstante, se centra en su libro Deschooling Society (1971) y constituye un análisis de su crítica a la escuela. Además se aporta como resultado final la interpretación del investigador sobre las relaciones entre los conceptos clave de Illich. El propósito de Illich es mostrar que la sociedad está forzada a una determi nada forma de escuel a y que dependemos de servicios institucionalizados por profesionales, de la misma forma que los estudiantes dependen de que los profesores acaten el curriculum. Al mismo tiempo que hace esta crítica, Illich propone un modelo alternativo de sistema educativo: el aprendizaje en red que posibilita el aprendizaje según los intereses del que aprende, sin un plan predeterminado. Desde la perspectiva de las ciencias de la educación los elementos esenciales del trabajo de Illich incluyen una exigencia por una educación libre, por preservar la autonomía y por aumentar la importancia de aprender por uno mismo.



The aim of this article is to consider the power of school system based on Ivan Illichs (1926 2002) thoughts. This article is based on a doctoral research in which Ivan Illichs work on modernized povert y was analyzed systematically by an immanent reconstruction concentrating on his most essential books published in the 1970s. This article, however, focuses on his book Deschooling Society (1971), and represents systematic analysis of its school-related criticism. Furthermore, the researchers interpretationon the interconnectedness of Illichs core concepts is introduced as the ultimate result. Illichs purpose is to show that the society is extorted into a form of school and that we all are dependent on institutionalized services from professionals, in the same way that students are dependent on teachers complying with a curriculum. Along with his criticism, Illich has proposed an alternative model of school system: learning Webs that enable learning on thelearners own terms with out a predetermined plan. From the perspective of the science of education, the essential elements of Illichs work include a demand for the liberation of education, preservation of autonomy, and increasing reliance on selflearning.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias

Cayley, D. (1992): Ivan Illich in Conversation: Toronto: House of Anansi Press Ltd.

Christie, N. (1972): Om skolan inte fanns [If There wasn’t School, originally in Norwegian Hvis skolen ikke fantes]. Stockholm: Wahlström & Widstrand.

Finger, M., & Asún, J. M. (2001): Adults Education at Crossroads – Learning Our Way Out. Leicester UK: NIACE, The National Organisation of Adult Learning.

Fromm, E. (1970): Introduction. In Illich, Ivan (Ed.), Celebration of Awareness. A Call for Institutional Revolution. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc. Garden City. Available online at: http://www.davidtinapple.com/illich/1971_celebration_intro.html

Halton, E. (1997): The Modern Error: Or, the Unbearable Enlightenment of Being. In Featherstone, Mike, Lash, Scott, & Robertson, Roland (Eds.), Global Modernities (pp. 260 – 277): London: Sage.

Hart, I. (2001): Deschooling and the Web: Ivan Illich 30 Years On Educational Media International . EMI 38:2/3 – ICEM-CIME Geneva Conference 2000.

Illich, I. (April, 1968): Speech to U.S. students. The Conference on InterAmerican Student Projects (CIASP) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, on April 20, 1968. Available online at: http://www.davidtinapple.com/illich/1968_cuernavaca.html

Illich, I. (1970): Celebration of Awareness. A Call for Institutional Revolution. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Illich, I. (1971): A Special Supplement: Education Without School: How It Can Be Done. The New York Review of Books, Jan 1971. Available online at: http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1971/jan/07/a-special-supplement-education-without-schoolhow-/?page=1

Illich, I. (1973): Tools for Conviviality. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.

Illich, I. (1978): Toward a History of Needs. CA: Heyday Books.

Illich, I. (2002): Limits to Medicine. Medical Nemesis: The Expropriation of Health. London: Marian Boyars.

Illich, I. (2004): Deschooling Society. London: Marion Boyars.

Illich, I. (2005): Disabling Professions. In Illich, Iván, Zola, Irving, Kenneth, McKnight, John, Caplan, Jonathan, & Shaiken, Harley (Eds.), Disabling Professions (pp. 11-39). London: Marian Boyars.

Jussila, J., Montonen, K., & Nurmi K.E. (1992): Systemaattinen analyysi

kasvatustieteiden tutkimusmenetelmänä [The Systematic Analysis as the Method in Science of Education]. In T. Gröhn, & J. Jussila (Eds.) Laadullisia lähestymistapoja koulutuksen tutkimuksessa [Qualitative Approaches in Researching Education], (pp. 157-208): Helsinki: Yliopistopaino.

Lewis, T. E. (2009): Understanding the Logic of Educational Encampment: From Illich to Agamben. The International Journal of Illich Studies, 1(1), 28-36. Available online at:

http://ivan-illich.org/journal/index.php/IJIS/article/view/6/15

Postman, N., & Weingartner, C. (1970): Uutta luova opetus [Teaching as Subversive Activity]. Jyväskylä: K. J. Gummerus.

Postman, N. (1985): Lyhenevä lapsuus. [The Disappearance of Childhood]. Juva: WSOY. The Preservation Institute. Ivan Illich’s Writing on the Web. Available online at http://www.preservenet.com/theory/Illich.html

Reimer, E. (1971): School is Dead. Alternatives in Education. An Indictment of the System and The Strategy of Revolution. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Ricoeur, P. (1981): Essays on Biblical Interpretation. London: SPCK.

Sauren, K.-M. (2008): Asiantuntijavalta – koulutettu mielikuvitus: Systemaattinen analyysi Ivan Illichin tuotannossa esitetystä köyhyyden modernisoitumisesta kulutusyhteiskunnassa [The Power of Professionals – Schooled Imagination: The Systematic Analysis on Modernized Poverty in the Consumer Society in Ivan Illich’s

Work]. Acta Universitatis Lapponiensis 147. Rovaniemi: The University of Lapland.

Varto, J. (2005): Koulun syytä etsimässä. Tiedon ja taidon erilaiset tehtävät kasvatuksessa. [Finding a reason for school. Different tasks of knowledge and skills in education]. In Kiilakoski, Tomi, Tomperi, Timo, & Vuorikoski, Marjo (Eds.), Kenen kasvatus? Kriittisen pedagogiikan ja toisinkasvatuksen mahdollisuus [Educating Who? Possibility to Critical Pedagogy and Education Otherwise] (pp. 197-216). Tampere: Vastapaino.

Wright, P. (2003): Obituary, Ivan Illich. The Lancet, 361.

Zaldívar, J. I., & Uceda, P. Q. (2010): Ivan Illich and the Conflict with Vatican (1966-1969). The International Journal of Illich Studies, 2(1), 3-12. Available online at: http://ivanillich.org/journal/index.php/IJIS/article/view/6/15

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.